Reports


2014

 

 

  

 

 Standby Power Annex Summary of Activities and Achievements - (4 pages)

This report list all the publications and events the standby annex produced over the five 
years from 2009 - 2014. 

 

 

 

 

                                   

                             

 

 Beyond Network Standby: A policy framework and action plan for low energy networks  - Energy Efficient Strategies  (60 pages)

 

This report examines digital networks and the associated energy use, propsing a pathway and action plan to reduce consumption.  Readers are provided with an understanding of how networks operate and how products that are connected to a network can minimise the network energy overhead.  The IEA guiding principles are explained in terms of real world applications.  The report also contains recommendations on definitions and how to apply these to energy policy.  The report concludes by providing a path forward for efficiency policy in the area of networks. The report is a companion piece for the soon to be released IEA/4E Network Standby publication. 

     

 

 

 

 2013

 

 

   

 

 Power Requirements for Functions  - Xergy Consulting (52 pages)

 This report builds on the previous work (ECOVA's Mapping Secondary

Product Functions report) examining in greater detail several high-priority

secondary functions to further quantify their power requirements and

provide the technical background that might be required to advance

horizontal policy action associated with these functions. 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 Mapping Secondary Product Functions to Products and 

Operational Modes - ECOVA (51 pages)

This project comprehensively examined secondary functions for the

first time by identifying, defining, and classifying the relevant functions

across three broad categories of consumer products: major appliances,

home entertainment, and office products. the project conducted market

research to identify the prevalence of each secondary function across

products and to determine how frequently those functions are used in

various modes of device operation. Tables or “maps” were generated of 

each function to identify clusters of functions with the greatest horizontal

applicability across different products and modes of operation.

 

 

 

 

   

Guiding Principles for Energy Efficiency in Networked

Consumer Electronics
In 2013 key Consumer Electronics Industry Associations from around the

world published  11 Guinding princples for energy efficency in Networked

Consumer Electronics.  These principles draw on those developed previously

by the IEA and 4E.

 

 2012

 

      

Staying Connected:

Unravelling energy waste issues in network standby

 Maia Consulting  (34 pages)

This report presents policy makers with an overview of the fast

moving developments in network standby and provides a window

into what policy options might be available to reduce network 
standby energy waste.

 

      

   

Report Overviews - Maia Consulting

The Annex is pleased to release project summaries of 9

previously published reports.  These two page summaries

have been commissioned to assist non-technical readers

access the information provided in the reports.

 

  1. Overview of Estimate of the Energy Wasted by Network Connected Equipment 
  2. Overview of List of Technical Standards for Equipment Connected to Energy-Using Networks 
  3. Overview of Provision of a horizontal policy approach to standby power 
  4. Overview of Cutting Edge Technology Feasibility Study
  5. Overview of Power Scaling in Proportion to Data Processing
  6. Overview of Investigation and Exploration of Network Power Consumption in Set Top Boxes, VOIP Telephones and Games Consoles 
  7. Overview of Examples of Low Energy Product Designs 
  8. Overview of Standby Power & Low Energy Networks: Issues and Directions Report
  9. Overview of  Evaluation of policies to reduce Standby Power and Development of Standard Methodology  

 

    

 

4E Annual Report 2011

Annual report detailing the work of the whole implementing agreement including

a section dedicated to the Standby Power Annex.

 

   

2011

 

       

Evaluation of policies to reduce Standby Power and Development

of Standard Methodology - Econoler 

(68 pages) This report proposes a uniform methodology to assist policy

makers evaluate the impact of standby power initiatives with the aim of

encouraging the use of a common approach when conducting evaluations,

allowing greater transparency, affording international credibility and providing

opportunity for comparisons across programs and jurisdictions. 

 

 

 

 

      

 

Presentation on Korean Standby Power Evaluation Study

by Dr Nam Kyun Kim (KERI)  Sydney October 2011. 

This presentation is filled with charts and graphs detailing the

results of a Korean survey investigatin standby power of exisitng

stock in households and new products in stores. The results are

compared with similar studies conducted in 2003 for households

and annually since 2008 for new products.

 

  

      

 

What has the Annex Achieved – August 2011
(3 pages). This brief report provides a summary of the history,

objectives and an evaluation of the achievements of the 4E

Standby Power Annex to date.

 

 


 

 

      


 Provision of a horizontal policy approach to standby power 

BIO Intelligence Service

(52 pages). This report presents a framework for analysing policies at an

international level that aim to address standby power in electrical end-use

equipment.  This framework is used to analyse several options for an

internationally harmonised approach to standby power, horizontally across

all power modes.


  

     

 

Estimate of the Energy Wasted by Network Connected Equipment

BIO Intelligence Service  

(30 Pages).  This report for the first time identifies the scale of the network

standby issue and demonstrates that with the implementation of effective

energy efficiency and power management policy substantial energy wastage

could be prevented.

 

 

    

 

List of Technical Standards for Equipment Connected to

Energy-Using Networks - BIO Intelligence Service

(73 pages).  This report provides a non-exhaustive review of technical

standards relevant for network connected equipment from 2010.  It

reviews the standards perceived as the most relevant that could form the

basis of a consistent international standard, covering: pure technical

standards, power measurement specificationsor test methods, and

mandatory or voluntary environmental performance standards. 


 

    

 Energy Reporting on Networks - Nordman 

(13 pages) This document discusses the concept of energy reporting on

networks where devices report information on their status, power levels and

energy consumption that could be used for power management purposes.  A

standard method for Internet Protocol-connected devices to provide this

information is seen as an essential element to achieve the maximum benefit

for managing energy use and efficiency in the coming decades.  This report

documents progress by the Internet Engineering Task Force to establish such

a protocol.


    

Testing Products with Network Connectivity - Nordman 

(20 Pages).  This report acknowledges that with many new developments

in hardware and software associated with networks, energy testing procedures

need to be updated and some new approaches required.  A global

harmonisation of test procedures and specifications around network

connectivity is proposed and suggestions made as to where further work is

required to develop these.

 


 

    

 Cutting Edge Technology Feasibility Study - ecos 

(35 pages). This report investigates the power scaling and control

opportunities and the potential for power consumption savings and benchmarking

for three product groups: Complex set Top Boxes, Voice over Internet Protocol

phones and game consoles.  It concludes that opportunities exist for reduction

in energy consumption in the three product groups through design focussing on

energy consumption and performance such as power scaling and multi- voltage

switching power supplies. 


 

    

 Power Scaling in Proportion to Data Processing - ecos

 (30 pages). This report examines the power scaling abilities for a variety

of electronic products, both network equipment (modems, routers and switches)

and “edge devices” with multimedia and audio-visual capabilities e.g. game

consoles, DVD Players.  The opportunities for reducing energy consumption

with power scaling for many of the products tested are evident. 

  

 

    

 Investigation and Exploration of Network Power Consumption

in Set Top Boxes, VOIP Telephones and Games Consoles - ADT

(35 pages). This report investigates the power scaling and control

opportunities and the potential for power consumption savings and

benchmarking for three product groups: Complex set Top Boxes, Voice

over Internet Protocol phones and game consoles.  It concludes that

opportunities exist for reduction in energy consumption in the three

product groups through design focussing on energy consumption and

performance such as power scaling and multi- voltage switching

power supplies. 

 

    

 Examples of Low Energy Product Designs - ecos

Ecos produced six brochures outlining examples of low energy product

design for electrical appliance components that provide global energy

saving opportunities.  The brochures provide a brief discussion on the

relevance of each area to standby power consumption and present

cutting edge low power product designs for components of electrical

appliances that are either currently available or under development. 

Combined these could have significant impacts in reducing standby

energy consumption.  The individual reports can be accessed below. 

  1. Standby Power: The Phantom in the Machine (3 pages)
  2. Ac-Dc PowerSupplies: Building a Better Brick (3 pages) 
  3. Battery Chargers: Getting Energized About Efficiency (2 pages) 
  4. Small Networking Equipment: Making the Connection to Energy Efficiency (3 pages)
  5. Power Factor Correction: An Energy Effcency Perspective (3 pages)
  6. Indicators and Displays:  A Judicious Use of Light (2 pages)

  

    

 

The Influence of Lighting Sources on the Public Supply System
(4 pages)This paper discusses power factor and lighting including the use of primary

and composite metrics and the implcations of regulations. European Lamp

Companies Federation 2011,  The Influence of Lighting Sources on the

Public Supply System, ELECFED, Brussels, Belgium.


 

    

 

4E Annual Report 2010

Annual report detailing the work of the whole implementing agreement including

a section dedicated to the Standby Power Annex.

 

 

2010

 

         

Guiding Principles for Energy Efficiency in Networked Products
In 2007 IEA Digital Networks Workshop developed some “guiding principles” that both could underpin both the network design and policy objectives future network designs. These principles can be used to evaluate existing and proposed network technologies and designs. At the 4E-APP technical expert network standby workshop in Paris April 2010, these principles were updated with some minor revisions. Since then the APP Standby Project, the 4E Standby Annex and the APEC standby Power Conference all accepted these principles as the basis for future work in this field.

 

    

 

Standby Power and Low Energy Networks : Issues and Directions

Energy Efficient Strategies 
(150 pages). This report plays a crucial role in identifying the issues

surrounding network standby and why existing methods for dealing with

standby power and low power mode are not directly transferrable to the

problem.  The report identifies a number of areas where the existing

knowledge is insufficient and proposes new research be undertaken to fill

the gaps. 


  

    

 Estimating Stock Average Low Power Mode Attributes 

Methodology for 4E Standby Annex - Energy Efficient Strategies

(19 pages). This report proposes a uniform international methodology 
to determine stock average attributes for low power modes based on

information for new products and the total stock and turnover of

products in normal use.  The author aims to provide the basis for a

consistent approach which will allow accurate estimates of low power

mode trends and facilitate intercountry comparisons. 

 

  

      

 Report on Standby Basket of Products - Indian Store Survey 2010 

(23 pages) Sandeep Garg, Energy Economist, BEE, India and

Mohit Verma, Consultant, CLASP-BEE, India

"The project “Standby Basket of Product Survey in India” was initiated by

the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power, Govt. of India,

as part of the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

Change (APP). The purpose of this project was to measure and collect the

standby power data from a range of common household appliances found on

display in retail stores in India.  The project was carried out to contribute to

the pooling of standby data in order to track standby power trends over time

at the national level. The project covered retail outlets in major cities of India."

 

  

 

       

 4E-APP-EU Standby Workshop, Vienna March 2010
31 participants from 20 countries met inVienna,Austria, to discuss a wide

range of programs and policies to quantify and reduce standby power

consumption.  Standby practitioners, industry representatives, technical

experts and government representatives from around the world, shared

information on current standby activities and agreed on the need for

close cooperation and continued sharing of information and collection

methodologies at a national, regional and global level.  Below is a short

summary of the event or alternatively you can access the more detailed report.

 4E-APP-EU Standby Workshop, Vienna Summary Report (2 pages)

 

4E-APP-EU Standby Workshop, Vienna Workshop Overview

and Reccomendations Detailed Report (14 pages)

 

 

        

 Power Factor: Policy Implications for the Scale-up of CFL Programs

(32 pages) "This report reviews and summarizes the current findings regarding

the topic of CFL power factor; and explores and identifies related policy

considerations, in order to allow policymakers to make well-informed decisions

that address their specific policy goals. The report does not take sides, but

rather explores the rguments and presents science and economic-based

recommendations based on the best currently available information." US Aid

Asia 2010, PowerFactor: Policy Implications for the Scale-up of CFL Programs,

United States Agency for International DevelopmentRegional Development

Mission for Asia, Bangkok, Thailand.

 

       

 

Results of Laboratory Test and Anylysis to Quantify the Electrical

Behaviour of the Modern CFL

 (3 pages) Elphick S. & Smith V. 2010, " Results of Laboratory Test and Anylysis to 

Quantify the Electrical Behaviour of the Modern CFL',

Transmission & Distribution issue 1 2010 February/March pp. 18-21

  

    

 

4E Annual Report 2009

Annual report detailing the work of the whole implementing agreement including

a section dedicated to the Standby Power Annex.

 

  

2009

 

    

 

Standby Meetings, Korea, November 2009 -Meeting Outcomes Report

The delegates of two international projects that focus on reducing standby power

in appliances have agreed to work cooperatively together for the benefit of both

activities. The meetings were attended by 29 delegates and observers representing

10 countries who are members of either or both projects.

 

  

   

 

CFLs - Implications for Distribution Networks

 (12 pages)

Watson N., Scott T. & Hirsch S. 2009 Compact Fluorescent Lamps

Implications for Distribution Networks

 

 

   

 

 What to do When Power Quality Eats into Energy Efficiency

 (webpage) Studebaker P. 2009, 

What to do When Power Quality Eats into Energy Efficiency

PlantServices.com March 2009, Itasca Illinois USA.

 


2008


        

 

Power Factor Correction

(2 pages) This fact sheet provides basic information on what power factor is and how it can be corrected.

DEWHA 2008, Power Factor Correction Fact Sheet for small and medium enterprises, DEWHA, Canberra. 

 

  

 Harmonic Distortions in Distribution Networks

(23 slides) Parsotam A. 2008, Harmonic Distortions in Distribution Networks presented 

at AS/NZS EL041-08 Committee meeting Wellington New Zealand. 

 

 

      

  Characteristics & Issues for Compact Fluorescent Lamps

 (88 slides) Watson N. 2008, Characteristics & Issues for Compact Fluorescent

Lamps presented at AS/NZS EL041 Meeting -08 Committee meeting Wellington New Zealand.

 

  

    

 

CFLs - Possible Harmonic Trends and their Mitigation

 (7 pages)

Gosbell V., Elphick S. & Smith V. 2008   Compact Fluorescent Lamps- 

Possible Harmonic Trends and their Mitigation

  

       

 

The Electrical Performance of Modern CFLs 

 (7 pages)

Elphick S., Ciufo P. & Perera S. 2008 The Electrical Performance of Modern Compact Fluorescent Lamps

 

 

2007

    

 Power Factor - The Basics 

(13 pages)  This article provides an simple explanation of what power

factor is  and answers 5 frequently asked questions 

PowerStudies.Com 2007, Power Factor - The Basics,

viewed 7 January 2012, <http://www.powerstudies.com/articles/PowerFactorBasics.pdf>

  

    

 

Domestic Lamp Replacement Project Technology Impacy Assessment 

 (24 pages)

Econnect 2007 Domestic Lamp Replacement Project Technology Impact

Assessment Econnect Project No:1964 Melbourne Australia.

 

 

     

 Measurement of Power Consumption of Set-top Boxes May 2007

Prepared by S.A.L.T., a joint venture between Swiss Agency for Energy

Efficiency (S.A.F.E.) and HTW Chur (College of Science and Technology)
Eric Bush, Max Schalcher, Peter Kühne, Stefan Kammermann,

Stefan Gasser, Jürg Nipkow

"The aim of this project was to obtain more information about the power

consumption of set-top boxes. For this purpose, measurements were carried

out on 33 set-top boxes, the results of tests carried out by

“Stiftung Warentest” were evaluated and manufacturers were asked to

provide technical specifications. In this way, a total of 80 models were evaluated."

 

 

  

    

 

 

 

    

 Energy Measurement of Single-Phase UPS Devices

 November 2007

Prepared by S.A.L.T., a joint venture between Swiss Agency for Energy

Efficiency (S.A.F.E.) and HTW Chur (College of Science and Technology)
Eric Bush, Max Schalcher, Peter Kühne,

Stefan Kammermann, Thomas Bruggmann

 

"In this project, 46 single-phase UPS devices in the power range from

350 VA up to 3000 VA could be measured with regard to efficiency and

energy consumption.  The classification into VFD, VI and VFI devices and

the performance of the measurements were carried out in accordance with

IEC 62040-3 with resistive and non-linear loads.  As expected, the VFD

devices showed the best efficiency level, followed by VI and VFI devices.

The efficiency rate at 50%, 75% and 100% of the nominal power differs only

slightly, and in most cases exceeds 90%. However, at a load of 25% the

efficiency decreases considerably (in individual cases to below 80%).  There are large

differences in the area of standby losses (switched on, without load) which can

only partly be explained by the different technologies of the various types of UPS

devices. Compared to the Code of Conduct for UPS devices with a power of more

than 10 kVA, the devices with lower power compare relatively well, especially

because of the small power demands for cooling. "

  

Pre 2007


    

 

Power Quality Implications of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Residences

(18 pages) Lamp Section National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1999, Power Quality Implications of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Residneces, Rosslyn VA. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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